Soft Tissue (muscles, tendons and ligaments)
Muscles can suffer traumatic rupture or tearing, and may require surgical repair. Some conditions can result in a muscle imbalance, leading to deformities of joints and impaired function. These sort of problems may require muscle/tendon lengthening or transfer, to optimise function. Ligaments can be torn by injury, which causes joint instability. Some cases may require ligament reconstruction surgery, e.g. ankle ligaments or cruciate ligaments of the knee. Tendons may also rupture, either by wear or by injury. Commonly these involve the rotator cuff tendons of the shoulder, which sometimes require surgical repair. Most of these operations need to be followed by significant periods of rehabilitation.