Enucleation, Evisceration, Artificial Eyes
Evisceration, Enucleation, and Exenteration are the three main surgical techniques by which all or part of the orbital contents are removed.
Evisceration is the removal of the contents of the globe while leaving the sclera and extraocular muscles intact.
Enucleation is the removal of the eye from the orbit while preserving all other orbital structures.
Exenteration is the most radical of the three procedures and involves removal of the eye, adnexa, and part of the bony orbit.
Evisceration is usually indicated in cases of endophthalmitis unresponsive to antibiotics and for improvement of cosmesis in a blind eye.
Enucleation is indicated for the above two conditions as well as for painful eyes with no useful vision, malignant intraocular tumours, in ocular trauma to avoid sympathetic ophthalmia in the second eye, in phthisis with degeneration, and in congenital anophthalmia or severe microphthalmia to enhance development of the bony orbit.
Exenteration is indicated mainly for large orbital tumours or orbital extension of intraocular tumours.
Following enucleation or evisceration of an eye for tumour, after severe trauma or painful blind eye, a primary orbital implant is usually inserted to replace the volume of the lost eye. An eye prosthesis (artificial eye) fits neatly in front of the embedded orbital implant and behind the eyelids, looking like a normal eye.
Artificial eyes have come a long way and we are proud to have Keith Pine come to Eye Centre Primecare every 2 months where he provides the service of making new eyes or maintaining existing prostheses.
Mr Pine has a wonderful website that explains the process of making ocular prosthetics, fitting, maintenance, subsidies, history and case studies.
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Moorfields Enucleation Information